There are accorded to Japan by Articles 156, 157 and 158 of the Peace treaty all former German “rights, titles and privileges
. in Shantung.”Germany possessed lease of Kiaochow Bay and adjoining area ,; privileges in a “neutral zone” surrounding leased territory ,; railways, mines, railway concessions ,; and an exclusive, preferential position within the whole province. Shantung has an area of 56,000 square miles, a population of 38,000,000, and is so situated that it is of great economic and political importance.The material acquisitions by Japan include:
|Railway: Tsingtao to Tsinanfu, and with branches, 310 miles, - value $25,000,000.|
|Coal Mines: Output in 1912 from four only, 600,000 tons. Possibilities much greater.|
| City of Tsingtao; (and port). Modern city German type; well equipped harbor. Population: 2100 Europeans, 58,000 Chinese. Foreign trade 1912 $21,267,313|
|Cables: Two, - from Tsingtao to Shanghai, and from Tsingtao to Chefoo.|
|Right to build three projected lines already contracted for, approximately 500 miles. Probable investment: $37,500,000.|
Right to develop mining property to distance of 20 miles of each side of Railways along entire lines.
(As modified by certain of the later German-Chinese agreements)
Right to receive first application in all cases where foreign assistance in persons, material or capital is required in province of Shantung.
The conspicuous, immediate economic and political effects are:
|Among the “spheres of influence” in China, that of Germany in Shantung was more specifically defined than any others. All the preferences which Germany possessed pass to Japan. Japan previously possessed a powerful strategic position north of Peking; she is now given a like position |)south of that capit oal.
The Shantung settlement breaks up the strategic and economic “balance of power” which formerly existed in reference to China and gives Japan easily the foremost position in respect to possible influence.